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Prostate Cancer Treatment Guide

Treatment
Description
Prostate Cancer
Patient Profile
Prostate Cancer
Treatments
Prostate Cancer
Survival Rates
Prostate Cancer
Side Effects
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Cryosurgery &
Cryotherapy

Prostate Cryotherapy

Also called cryosurgery, this minimally invasive procedure uses needles to apply freezing gases to the prostate. Prostate Cryotherapy

Also called cryosurgery, this minimally invasive procedure uses needles to apply freezing gases to the prostate.

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Cryosurgery Patients

Cryosurgery is used for patients with localized cancer, external radiation recurrent cancer, Gleason scores under 6, or PSA levels under 10. Cryosurgery Patients

Cryosurgery is used for patients with localized cancer, external radiation recurrent cancer, Gleason scores under 6, or PSA levels under 10.

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Minimally Invasive Surgery

Cryosurgery takes about 2 hours with a possible overnight admission. Minimally Invasive
Surgery

Cryosurgery takes about 2 hours with a possible overnight admission.

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Cryosurgery
Survival Rates

Long-term clinical results are limited but promising. Cryosurgery
Survival Rates

Long-term clinical results are limited but promising.

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Cryosurgery
Side Effects

Side effects may include moderate pelvic pain, blood in urine, scrotal swelling, mild urinary urgency, and impotence. Cryosurgery
Side Effects

Side effects may include moderate pelvic pain, blood in urine, scrotal swelling, mild urinary urgency, and impotence.

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Prostate News

Click here for the latest news on Cryosurgery & Cryotherapy.Prostate News

Click here for the latest news on Cryosurgery & Cryotherapy.

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Cryosurgery &
Cryotherapy Videos

Click here to view Cryosurgery & Cryotherapy procedures. Cryosurgery &
Cryotherapy Videos

Click here to view Cryosurgery & Cryotherapy procedures.

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Cryosurgery &
Cryotherapy Experience


Click here to share your Cryosurgery & Cryotherapy experiences.Cryosurgery &
Cryotherapy Experience

Click here to share your Cryosurgery & Cryotherapy experiences.

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Brachytherapy

Chemotherapy

Hormone
Therapy

Radiation
Therapy

Prostatectomy

Robotic Prostatectomy

Watchful
Waiting

Complementary
and
Alternative Medicine

High Intensity
Focused
Ultrasound (HIFU)

Emerging Technologies

 

Results of Treating Prostate Cancer with Primary Cryotherapy

“Cryotherapy for PCa: The Next Generation Innovative Biofeedback Applications in Urology”
John S. Lam, M.D., Oleg Shvarts, M.D., and Arie S. Belldegrun, M.D. Contemporary Urology, October 2004, Vol. 16, No. 10, 2-12

After 6 to 12 months following primary cryotherapy, prostate biopsies were performed in patients and reported a rate ranging from 7.7 to 25 percent in several series. It was determined that certain areas of the prostate and seminal vesicles were more likely to be sites of treatment failure. Dr. Shinohara and associates reported that recurrence was more common in cancers located at the apex (95%) and seminal vesicles (43.8%), in contrast to those located in the midgland (4.1%) and base (0%). Due to a release of intracellular PSA from cellular necrosis, PSA levels may rise to a very high value immediately after the procedure. Out of 132 patients, biochemical failure was lowest for those who achieved PSA nadirs (usually found in 3 months) below .1ng/mL (21%) but was common in those with higher values. Within the first 12 months after treatment 96% experienced biochemical failure and 88% saw biopsy failure.


“Targeted Cryoablation of the Prostate: 7-Year Outcomes in the Primary Treatment of Prostate Cancer”
Duke K. Bahn, Fred Lee, Robert Badalament, Anil Kumar, Jeffrey Greski, And Michael Chernick. UROLOGY 60 (Suppl 2A): 3–11, 2002. © 2002, Elsevier Science Inc.

In this study 590 consecutive prostate cancer patients were evaluated after approximately 5.43 years following primary targeted cryoablation from March 1993 to September 2001. Patients were treated at Crittenton Hospital in Rochester, Michigan. Based on the likelihood of disease relapse, patients were placed into 3 risk groups; 15.9% low risk, 30.3% medium risk, and 53.7% high risk. Since the cryotherapy procedure had not matured to its current state until 1996, not all patients in this series underwent the same procedural method. Although all patients were treated with 2 complete freeze-thaw cycles using a target temperature of -40°C, the first 350 patients were treated with a liquid nitrogen cryomachine. An argon-based cryomachine later replaced liquid nitrogen, yielding better results. After 7 years the biochemical disease-free survival rates were as follows, low risk was 61%, medium risk was 68%, and high risk was 61%. Prostate cryotherapy patients with a positive biopsy were 13%, and afterwards 32 patients underwent repeat cryoablation. Targeted cryoablation proved, in this study, to equal or surpass morbidity rates of external-beam radiation, 3-dimensional conformal radiation, and brachytherapy.


“Five-Year Retrospective, Multi-Institutional Pooled Analysis of Cancer-Related Outcomes After Cryosurgical Ablation of the Prostate”
John P. Long, Duke Bahn, Fred Lee, Katsuto Shinohara, Douglas O. Chinn, And Joseph N. Macaluso, Jr. UROLOGY 57: 518–523, 2001. © 2001, Elsevier Science Inc.

In this study 975 prostate cancer patients underwent cryosurgical ablation as their primary therapy from January 1993 to January 1998. Patients treated at five institutions were pooled for this analysis including the New England Medical Center, University of California at San Francisco, Urologic Institute of New Orleans, Crittenton Hospital, and Alhambra Hospital. Based on clinical characteristics (such as PSA level, Gleason score, and stage), patients were placed into 3 groups, 25% at low risk, 34% at medium risk, and 41% at high risk. Physicians tracked patients for a period of 24 months. The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival rate for patients with a PSA less than 0.5ng/mL ranged from 36% to 61%, compared with patients having a PSA level less than 1.0ng/mL, which ranged from 45% to 76%. The positive biopsy rate was 18%. Certain complications included impotence (93%), incontinence (7.5%), rectal fistula (.5%), and transurethral resection (13%).

 
 
 
 

 
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